Categories
English books High School Hs American history

Civil Unrest and Change




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

Civil Unrest and Change

In addition to the Vietnam War and the national disagreement that surrounded it, other parts of U.S. society were in a state of change also. When Lyndon B. Johnson took office after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, he quickly signed the Civil Rights Act. It had taken a lot of strife on the part of many Americans to bring the country to this point of legal affirmation of equal rights for all citizens of the United States.

The country had been segregated from the beginning. Even since the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, the actual lives of African Americans were far from equal with that of whites. In 1954, segregation was pronounced unconstitutional by the Supreme Court decision of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.

– 2 –

The extent of racial prejudice became more obvious, however, as school after school refused to admit black students to attend along with their white children.

In January of 1955, Rosa Parks made another landmark statement in history when she refused to give up her seat and move to the back part of the bus where blacks were forced to sit. By 1956, the inequality of transportation in the South came to the forefront as African Americans boycotted public bus transportation. In 1960, students seated themselves at Woolworth Store’s lunch counters and refused to move until they were served. It had previously been illegal for blacks to eat at these counters. In August of 1963, 250,000 people marched in Washington, D.C. to protest the lack of equal rights for African American citizens.

– 3 –

In 1964, President Johnson, often called LBJ, signed the Civil Rights Act into law. Martin Luther King Jr. was the best known civil rights activist of the period. He was assassinated in 1968.

The African American citizens were not the only members of society that began to make statements concerning their civil rights. In August of 1960, a group of American Indians staged a sit-in to protest their treatment by the U.S. government and to ask for their fair and equal treatment as U.S. citizens. Students at the University of California at Berkeley also formed a group demanding free-speech in 1964.

Important activism was occurring in the Mexican-American community as well.

– 4 –


– 5 –

The best known of the Mexican-American activists on the national level was César Chavez. By 1952 he was urging Latinos to register and vote. He then began to travel about California and speak for worker’s rights. He was responsible for the formation of the United Farm Workers. This union fought and won higher wages for the grape and lettuce workers in California. In 1973, the first four-year Mexican-American college was named for him in Mount Angel, Oregon.

Protests throughout the country grew more intense over the military draft in 1966. Also, through these years, frustrated women spent lots of energy and frustration achieving equal rights for themselves, regardless of their race. Before the 1970s and even into the 1980s, women had few of the rights that men enjoyed. They could not have jobs that were competitive with men. Very few could achieve careers in the political field.

– 6 –


– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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– 8 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 9 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of Civil Unrest and Change for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
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______________________________________

– 10 –

Where?

______________________________________
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Why?

______________________________________
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______________________________________

Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
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– 11 –

Discuss:

1. Explain equal rights and civil rights.

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What is so important about registering and voting?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 12 –

3. What is a military draft?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

4. Explain segregation.

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 13 –







Civil Unrest and Change
Categories
High School Hs American history

The Vietnam War




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War was unlike all other wars in American history. The war turned Americans against their government and tore the nation apart morally. The Vietnam War was the first war in the history of the nation that had not been supported by the majority of the American people.

By the 1960s, most people knew that there were several hundred advisors from the United States in Vietnam, but there seemed to be no cause for alarm. For the average American, Vietnam was only a small distant country that was of little concern.

In 1965, public awareness of Vietnam changed drastically when President Johnson sent the first American combat troops to join in support of the anti-Communist regime ruling in the southern part of the country.

– 2 –

The opposition to the war grew when, over the course of a few years, the number of troops sent to fight in Vietnam gradually increased to over 500,000. The war was not over until 1973, when the United States withdrew its forces.

– 3 –

The Vietnam War divided the American people. The crowd of older Americans treasured values such as patriotism and the nation’s flag highly. The younger Americans felt that the U.S. should let Vietnam fight its own civil war.

Another aspect that greatly differentiated the Vietnam War from other wars was television. The fighting was brought into living rooms across the nation through the television. Families would gather around TV sets every evening to watch the day’s events on the battlefield.

Television not only inspired many people to oppose the war, it also changed the public’s view of war itself. The graphic scenes that were shown daily presented Americans with a view of war that they had never seen before. Television viewers became unwilling witnesses to the Vietnam War.

– 4 –

When President Johnson decided not to run for another term as President in 1968, his political party, the Democrats, named Vice-President Hubert Humphrey as the Democratic presidential candidate.

The Republicans chose Richard Nixon, who had served as Vice-President in the Eisenhower Administration, as their presidential candidate. Although both men ran as “peace” candidates, many voters associated Humphrey with Johnson and America’s failure in Vietnam and therefore elected Nixon.

– 5 –

In 1969, when Nixon took office, there were over 540,000 American troops in Vietnam. The United States was not winning the war, and the American people wanted out. Nixon announced that he had a plan that would bring “peace with honor” for the United States. The name Nixon gave this plan was “Vietnamization.”

The plan was a simple strategy that, in reality, had been started under President Johnson. It asked that the South Vietnamese assume the burden of fighting the war and, in exchange, the United States would continue to provide support in the form of food and aid.

In 1969, the first withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam began. Only 285,000 troops remained by the spring of 1971, and in 1972 this number was reduced to only 70,000. President Nixon was honoring his promise to bring the troops home.

– 6 –

Peace talks began in Paris, France, shortly after Nixon was sworn into office. The peace talks continued for three-and-a-half years. The United States attempted to negotiate a way out of the war without having to admit defeat or abandon the government of the South Vietnamese. North Vietnam called for the complete unification and independence of all Vietnam without any foreign interference of any kind.


– 7 –

Nixon had the belief that the Communists would be more willing to negotiate if the United States increased the military pressure on them. Consequently, as President, one of Nixon’s first actions was to increase the bombing of North Vietnam. At the same time, with the intent of destroying the Viet Cong havens in Cambodia, Nixon ordered the secret bombing of Cambodia. On April 30, 1970, Nixon ordered American ground troops into Cambodia since the air strikes against Cambodia did not bring the desired results.

Congress reacted very strongly in response to Nixon’s move into Cambodia. In June, Congress repealed the resolution of the Gulf of Tonkin, which took away the President’s free hand in conducting the war. Congress also passed legislation that forbade the use of American troops in Laos.

– 8 –

Nixon continued to broaden the war despite the opposition from the public and Congress. In February 1971, South Vietnamese troops crossed into Laos with air cover from the Americans. Their mission was to cut off the Ho Chi Minh Trail and destroy the Viet Cong sanctuaries.

– 9 –

The South Vietnamese troops suffered a great and decisive defeat. The entire South Vietnamese force would have been completely destroyed if their retreat had not been covered by American air power. With the failure of the Laos mission, it was clear that Nixon’s “Vietnamization” was not working.

North Vietnam launched a massive attack against the South one year later. On March 30, 1972, forty thousand troops along with several hundred tanks crossed the border into South Vietnam advancing rapidly, capturing many important towns and moving within 60 miles of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam.

The only thing that stopped North Vietnam was the intense American air power. With the help of the U.S. Air Force, the South Vietnamese eventually recaptured the territory that had been lost in the spring and managed to push the North Vietnamese out.

– 10 –

Much like the previous Laos invasion, the Communist offensive in March showed that the South Vietnam Army was not capable of carrying on the war without American air support. North Vietnam knew that victory would be within their grasp once the Americans left South Vietnam. American troops were pulled out of Vietnam in 1973.


– 11 –

In April 1975, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam defeated South Vietnam. They accomplished what nationalists had been trying to do since World War II. The nationalists had been trying to unify Vietnam under one government free of any foreign interference. This government was, of course, a Communist dictatorship. The North Vietnamese renamed Saigon Ho Chi Minh City as a tribute to their long-time leader who had died in 1969.

Americans tried to come to grips with the war that had torn the nation apart. The Vietnam War cost taxpayers $150 billion and resulted in the death of 58,000 troops. In addition, more than 300,000 others had been wounded in the war and several thousand other soldiers were declared missing in action. Many of the soldiers that were declared missing in action are still not accounted for today.

– 12 –

Shortly after many of the American soldiers of the war returned home, they began to experience health problems. These health problems were attributed to their exposure to Agent Orange, a defoliant that was used extensively in Vietnam.

– 13 –

Thirty-four thousand people filed claims with the Veterans Administration requesting benefits to compensate them for the contraction of cancer and other diseases. The Veterans Administration refused to grant them benefits for a number of years using the excuse that there was no proof that Agent Orange caused cancer. In 1991, after an extensive amount of evidence showed a connection between Agent Orange and cancer, the government finally agreed to pay full disability to the service men that qualified.

The Vietnam War veterans did not receive recognition for their service and sacrifice until 1982. On Veterans Day in 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC in their honor. The memorial is a wall of black granite constructed in a V-shape. The wall is inscribed with the names of 58,000 Americans that gave their lives for their country in the Vietnam War.

– 14 –

On the opening day of the memorial, thousands of people paraded by the two massive slabs of granite looking for the names of their friends and loved ones. People left flowers, letters, and other mementoes at the memorial.

– 15 –

Mothers and wives cried as they touched the names of their husbands and sons. The veterans wept as well as they found the names of their comrades with whom they had fought. Even today, few people that visit the memorial leave untouched.

The legacy of the Vietnam War lives on even though it has been over for a quarter of a century since the war. The Vietnam War changed not only the way people think about and view war, but also the way they view their government. In the recent history of our country, there has not been another war that has impacted the American people so deeply and profoundly.

– 16 –

– 17 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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– 18 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 19 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of the Vietnam War for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
______________________________________
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– 20 –

Where?

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Why?

______________________________________
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Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 21 –

Discuss:

1. Give at least one reason why the Vietnam War was greatly different from previous wars.

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What idea did “Vietnamization” refer to and what was it?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

3. Briefly describe the U.S. public’s sentiment about the war.

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 22 –

4. Did American air support play an important role in the war? Why?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

5. As Vietnam succeeded in becoming a unified nation, what kind of government did they adopt?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 23 –







The Vietnam War
Categories
High School Hs American history

Prosperity




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

Prosperity

Europe was in ruins after World War II. Food was scarce and entire cities had vanished off the map. Many families had been broken apart by the loss of loved ones in the war, and millions of people had been left homeless. To make matters worse, most nations lacked the money needed for reconstruction.

However, the United States experienced a large industrial expansion because of the war. Although Europe had been destroyed, no bombs fell on American soil. Furthermore, the production that had been necessary to win the war brought the United States out of the Great Depression and into great economic prosperity. As a result, much of Europe sought the United States for financial assistance.

– 2 –

The United States responded with a variety of aid and programs at first, but in June 1947, George C. Marshall, the U.S. Secretary of State, proposed a plan for the reconstruction of Western Europe.

– 3 –

This plan, known as the Marshall Plan, called for massive foreign aid in the form of loans and grants for individual nations to aid them in rebuilding their cities and towns.

Much of Europe was rebuilt within five years. The real miracle, however, was in Western Germany. At the end of the war, most of Germany’s cities were left in absolute ruins. There were no factories left and very little of anything else had not been destroyed.

So, when the factories were rebuilt with U.S. aid, they were not only new, but modern as well. This allowed the factories to run even more efficiently than before. As a result, this feature helped West Germany become one of the most prosperous nations of post-WWII Europe..

– 4 –


– 5 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

________

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– 6 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 7 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of prosperity in the U.S. for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 8 –

Where?

______________________________________
______________________________________
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Why?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 9 –







Prosperity
Categories
English books High School Hs American history

Tuskegee Airmen




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

Tuskegee Airmen

The U.S. Housing Authority and Agricultural Adjustment Administration were racially discriminatory. As a result of this discrimination, two-thirds of all black Americans were unemployed by 1935.

However, World War II brought many changes for black Americans. The Great Depression had been especially difficult on black agricultural workers in the South. The President began fighting racial discrimination at the urging of Eleanor Roosevelt and black civil rights leaders.

– 2 –

– 3 –

Since millions of men joined the armed forces when the U.S. entered World War II, millions of workers were needed to work in factories. New employment opportunities emerged for blacks due to this increased need for workers. Unfortunately, discrimination in the workplace still continued. In 1941, President Roosevelt signed an executive order forbidding discrimination in federal jobs and defense contracts when black leaders, such as A. Philip Randolph, threatened to march on Washington.

There were over 920,000 blacks serving in the armed forces with 7,700 serving as officers. Unfortunately, the blacks were still assigned to segregated units. Col. Benjamin O. Davis became the first black general in U.S. history when he was promoted to the rank of U.S. Army General by President Roosevelt.

– 4 –


– 5 –

The U.S. Navy was the first to accept black Americans into desegregated general services and was then followed by the Marines and finally the U.S. Coast Guard. However, the United States Air Force remained segregated until the end of the war. Nevertheless, it was the all-black Tuskegee Fighting Squadron, known as the 99th Squadron and later the larger 332nd Unit, that showed best how wrong both the general public and military were in doubting the fighting capabilities of black Americans.

Black airmen had damaged or destroyed 409 enemy aircraft. The black airmen flew 15,553 sorties and 1,578 missions. They served as heavy bomber escorts for 200 of these missions deep into Germany, yet not a single one of their heavy bombers was ever destroyed by enemy fire. As a result of this, they were presented with 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 744 air medals. These men were among the most highly decorated pilots in World War II.

– 6 –


– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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– 8 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 9 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of Tuskegee Airmen for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
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______________________________________

– 10 –

Where?

______________________________________
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Why?

______________________________________
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Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 11 –







Tuskegee Airmen
Categories
English books High School Hs American history

The End of the Twentieth Century

Page 2 Page 4 Page 6 Page 8 Questions Page 10 Questions Page 12 Questions Page 14 Questions Page 16 Questions Page 18 Questions




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

The End of the Twentieth Century

Even since those years of the 1960s and 1970s there have been events occurring in the U.S. and abroad that have shaped what the United States has become today. The Cold War continued and became more critical as the Soviet Union built a great wall around a “free” part of Germany in the city of Berlin.

They did this to stop the many people that were fleeing from Communist East Berlin into “free” West Berlin. The Soviet government was proving itself more and more incapable of keeping its promises of a utopian life for its citizens. As the populations fell more and more into poverty and starvation, the people began to lose faith in their Communist-controlled governments.

– 2 –

The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 marked the greatest confrontation between the U.S and the Soviet Union. John F. Kennedy was in office as President, and the two countries came closer than ever to an actual nuclear war.

When Richard Nixon won the elections of 1968, he inherited the Vietnam War, but on a positive note he also promoted the continuation of the U.S. space program. The space program was run by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (or NASA), an organization based in Houston, Texas. The first landing of a man on the moon came in 1969, during Nixon’s Presidency.

– 3 –

Early in the 1970s, however, Nixon created the greatest political scandal of the 20th Century. He had the Democratic Party Headquarters broken into in order to steal information. He then proceeded to deny the illegality of the act and cover it up. Due to this great scandal known as Watergate, he finally resigned from office in 1974.

During his years as President, though, he was able to make positive strides with the Cold War. While President, Nixon met with the U.S.S.R.’s head of state, Mikhail Gorbachov, and they both began an attempt at demonstrating that closer relations could help and not hurt the two vastly different governmental powers. Thus began what is known as the “thaw” in the Cold War.

– 4 –


– 5 –

The 1980s are remembered for the invention and wide use of personal computers. It also, however, saw an emergence of the newest world plague: AIDS. After President Ronald Reagan slowed warming in relations with the Soviets for a time, the great power of what had been the U.S.S.R. began to crumble from within.

The Berlin Wall was torn down by a great public revolution in 1989. By 1991, the Soviet Union had fallen and the Cold War has ceased to be. The same year that the Soviet Empire dissolved, the U.S. became involved in what became the Gulf War. The U.S. President was George Bush, Sr.

– 6 –


– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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– 8 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 9 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of Civil Unrest and Change for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 10 –

Where?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Why?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 11 –

Discuss:

1. Why was the Berlin Wall constructed?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What was Watergate?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

3. What was the “thaw” in the Cold War?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 12 –


– 13 –







The End of the Twentieth Century
Categories
High School Hs American history

The Cold War

Page 2 Page 4 Page 6 Page 8 Questions Page 10 Questions Page 12 Questions Page 14 Questions Page 16 Questions Page 18 Questions




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

The Cold War

In late April 1945, even before World War II had ended, representatives from 50 nations met in San Francisco, California, for the purpose of designing a charter for a new organization that was to be called the United Nations. The United Nations was created to help countries avoid war and find ways in which to solve problems through peaceful means. The United States was one of the founders of the UN. The Soviet Union was another powerful member of the United Nations.

Would the United Nations succeed in keeping the world at peace? A large part of the answer depended on the Soviet Union and the United States. Although during the war the U.S. and the Soviet Union set aside distrust from earlier years to fight Nazi Germany, the suspicions on the side of both countries soon reappeared.

– 2 –

The U.S. government was unhappy with the Soviet Union over the Russian actions in Eastern Europe.

Joseph Stalin, the Soviet dictator of what had been Russia, refused to remove the Red Army from the countries of Eastern Europe that it had overrun when pushing back the Germans during World War II. Stalin had promised to allow these countries to choose their own forms of government through free elections. However, within four years of the end of WWII, the Russians forced Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary to adopt Communist governments under orders from Moscow. In Germany, the Russian-occupied eastern part became Communist. The Communists soon took over both Albania and Yugoslavia as well. The outrage of the United States at these events turned the U.S. against the Soviet Union.

– 3 –

President Truman guided the transition from wartime to peace for the United States. Under a new, “Fair Deal,” Truman proposed many new social reform measures. Truman took a strong position against the spread of Communism abroad and asked Congress for a massive aid plan to aid Europe in their recovery from the war. Named after George C. Marshall, The Secretary of State, the Marshall Plan began in 1948. It sent billions of dollars in money and materials to Western Europe.

The Soviet Union feared the military power of the United States, especially the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union charged that the Marshall Plan was intended as a hostile act. The Soviets resented American protests against Soviet policies in Eastern Europe. The Russians had suffered horrible losses, including the loss of about 15 to 20 million Russian lives, during the war.

– 4 –


– 5 –

Stalin believed that he was fully justified in seeking to defend the Soviet Union from future attack by controlling the small countries that lay between Germany and the Soviet Union.

The distrust, dislike, and resulting actions between the United States and the Soviet Union came to be called the “Cold War.” Both sides competed for allies in this non-shooting war. For some time in the late 1940s this competition was centered in Western Europe where strong and popular Communist parties threatened to win power through free elections, especially in Italy. These developing nations were categorized by political commentators into a so-called “Third World.” This was done to distinguish them from the other two “worlds:” one “Free” and the other “Communist.”

– 6 –


– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

________

________

________

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– 8 –

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

5. ______________________________________

– 9 –

Write one sentence to describe the history of the Cold War for each area below:

What?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

When?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

How?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 10 –

Where?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Why?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Who?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 11 –

Discuss:

1. What organization from an earlier war was like the United Nations?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What was a “Third World” country?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 12 –

3. Explain the name “Cold War.”

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

4. Give three reasons for tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 13 –







The Cold War
Categories
English books High School Hs American history

Korea




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

KOREA

The U.S. and the Soviet Union had invaded Korea during World War II and liberated it from Japan. By the armistice (peace) terms, the Korean peninsula was divided into two countries along the 38th parallel. The U.S. controlled South Korea, and the Soviets controlled North Korea.

Neither the Soviet Union nor the U.S. left Korea at the end of World War II. Both the North and South Korean governments claimed the right to rule all of Korea.

– 2 –

– 3 –

On June 25, 1950, South Korea was invaded by the Communist North Korea. The United Nations Security Council accepted the American request for immediate support for South Korea in September 1950.

In November 1950, the United Nations’ troops secured South Korea and pushed the North Korean troops as far back as China.

In the time between November 1950 and January 1951, the Chinese troops had forced the United Nations troops all the way back to South Korea.

– 4 –


– 5 –

An armistice (peace) was finally reached in 1953 after two years of negotiations.

The Korean War caused a conflict between Harry Truman, President of the U.S., and General Douglas MacArthur, his commanding general. The President and the General had different views on how the Korean War should be run.

President Truman believed in containment and wanted to make peace. He wanted to keep the Korean Communists north of the 38th parallel. On the other hand, General MacArthur believed in an attack offensive. General MacArthur wanted to expel the Communists, not only from North Korea but also out of China. General MacArthur wanted to attack China with the atomic bomb. In April 1951, President Truman removed General MacArthur from his command of the United Nations’ troops in Korea because he refused to follow orders regarding the Korean War.

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– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

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Write one sentence to describe the history of Korea for each area below:

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Korea
Categories
English books High School Hs American history

Chronology of Events of World War II




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

WORLD WAR II – INTRODUCTION

1933 Adolf Hitler becomes Germany’s dictator.

1935 Italy attacks Ethiopia.

1935 Spanish Civil War (Franco is supported by Hitler.)

1936 Germany occupies the Rhineland in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

1938 Germany annexes Austria.

1938 Hitler forces Czechoslovakia to surrender the Sudetenland to Germany.

Nov. 9-10, 1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)- German government organized massive riots and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues.

Mar. 1939 Memel (part of Lithuania) is ceded to Germany.

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Mar. 1939 Germany occupies the rest of Czechoslovakia.

April 1939 Italy occupies Albania.

May 1939 Nazi-Italian Pact.

Aug. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty contained a secret provision for the division of Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union.

Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland. World War II began.

Sept. 3, 1939 France and Britain declare war on Germany.

Nov. 1939 Soviet Union invades Finland.

April 1940 Germany invades Denmark and Norway.

May 1940 Germany defeats Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

June 1940 Germany invades France.

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June 1940 France surrenders to Germany.

Aug. 1940 Battle of Britain begins.

Oct. 1940 Italy invades Greece.

April 1941 Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia.

June 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union.

Dec. 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.

Dec. 8, 1941 U.S., Canada, and Great Britain declare war on Japan.

Dec. 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. in support of Japan.

Aug. 1942 Hitler orders forces to capture Stalingrad.

Oct. 1942 British attack at El Alamein, Egypt, and begin recapture of North Africa.

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Nov. 1942 Allied forces land in Algeria and Morocco.

Feb. 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad; war turns in favor of Allies.

May 1943 Axis forces surrender in North Africa.

July 1943 Allies invade Sicily.

Sept. 1943. Italy secretly surrenders to the Allies.

Jan. 1944 German siege of Leningrad is broken.

June 6, 1944 D-Day: Massive Allied invasion of Normandy beaches in France.

July 1944 Attempt by German officers to assassinate Hitler.

Aug. 1944 Allies invade Southern France.

Dec. 1944 Battle of the Bulge-Hitler’s last attempt to stop the Allies.

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Jan. 1945 Soviets capture Warsaw.

April 1945 Soviets capture Vienna.

April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide.

May 2, 1945 Berlin is captured.

May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders.

Aug. 5, 1945 U.S. dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.

Aug. 9, 1945 U.S. dropped atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.

Aug. 14, 1945 Japan surrenders unofficially.

Sept. 2, 1945 Japan officially surrenders.

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– 7 –

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

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Write one sentence to describe the history of World War II for each area below:

What?

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How?

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Chronology of Events of World War II
Categories
High School Hs American history

WORLD WAR II – INTRODUCTION




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

WORLD WAR II – INTRODUCTION

After seeing the terrible costs of World War I, nobody believed that Germany would want another war. However, the hard conditions that resulted from the terms of the Treaty of Versailles made Germany a fertile environment for radical politicians. The Depression also left many desperate for changes.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler, the German dictator, sought to regain the power that Germany had lost in World War I. Hitler claimed he would crush any country that stood in his way, and he attempted to do so.

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Because Europe did not want another war, they gave in to Hitler’s demands. However, this changed in 1939 when France and England promptly declared war on Germany after Hitler invaded Poland. England was besieged by German bombs, and France was conquered within a year. Germany then invaded Russia in 1940. Most of Europe was under German domination by 1943.

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The images from that domination were horrifying. German policies were brutally enforced by the Nazi secret police. Thousands of people mysteriously disappeared in the middle of the night. Those who were believed to be racially impure and anyone suspected of anti-Nazi beliefs were sent to concentration camps that were built to imprison them. Most of these people died in the concentration camps due to inadequate food and overwork. Millions of Hitler’s enemies were moved from concentration camps to death camps. One of these death camps was Auschwitz, located in Poland. Hitler’s burning desire was to remove all Jews from Europe.

The countries that fought in World War II divided into two alliances. These were the Allied Forces and the Axis Forces. The Allied Forces were made up of the United States, England, China, and Russia, along with another forty-five countries that had joined by the end of the war. The Axis Forces were made up of Germany, Italy and Japan.

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The goal of the Allies was to stop the Axis from taking over the world. The goal of the Axis was to conquer the other countries in Europe and the Pacific and continue to expand throughout the world.

Almost all of the United States industrial production was converted to the production of military weapons and materials. In an effort to win the war, all citizens had to make sacrifices. Gasoline, meat, sugar, and a number of other items were rationed. As a result of this, many historians credit the Allied victory to American production and Russian manpower.

Hitler was ultimately defeated. Millions of soldiers and civilians died in the course of the war. Afterwards, all of Europe needed reconstruction. Roads, factories, communications, and entire cities had been destroyed in the war.

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Ironically, the end of World War II marked the beginning of yet another war, the Cold War. Although the United States and the Soviet Union had fought side by side to defeat Hitler, afterwards they became polar opposites in their political beliefs and ideas of government.

Perhaps the most difficult part of World War II was that once Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the U.S. naval base in Hawaii, the war was being fought in another distant part of the world at the same time. On December 8, 1941, the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain declared war on Japan. Allied troops became stretched thin in their efforts to cover the vast Pacific Ocean and the many Japanese occupied islands.

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The war continued until August of 1945 when the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on two parts of Japan and consequently gained their surrender. With Germany’s surrender in May of 1945 and Japan’s surrender in August of the same year, the great conflict was finally over.

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WORLD WAR II – INTRODUCTION
Categories
High School Hs American history

The New Deal




This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Illustrated and Designed By
Christian Alas
Sound By
Margarita Onofre

The New Deal

Along with Congress, Roosevelt created new programs that put people to work through the building of highways and hospitals, repairing school buildings, building public playgrounds, draining swamps, fixing and constructing huge dams to control floods, and generating electric power for the countryside.

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a special program for young men, gave hundreds of thousands of young people the chance to leave the city and work in rural or wilderness areas by caring for forests, cutting trails, building shelters and conservation facilities, and helping fight forest fires. Young people working in the Civilian Conservation Corps were required to send part of their salary home to their families.

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Musicians, artists, and writers were also given work through the government programs. Artists who were inspired by Mexican art painted murals on the walls of high schools, hospitals, zoos, libraries, government office buildings, and post offices throughout the country.

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By the mid-1930s businesses had begun to recover and hire more workers. Skilled workers, such as carpenters or plumbers, were able to join unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor. The American Federation of Labor was an old established association of crafts unions that fought to improve the workers’ wages.

Since the majority of workers didn’t have anybody to represent them, they were forced to accept long hours and hard work for low wages. One of the New Deal’s most important laws, the National Labor Relations Act, was passed in 1935. This law was also called the Wagner Act, after the Senator from New York that sponsored it. This law guaranteed workers the right to organize and bargain with their bosses as a group.

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The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) enrolled thousands of longshoremen, steelworkers, coal miners, autoworkers, and other industrial workers. The CIO began conducting strikes demanding better working conditions and higher wages.

As the years passed, the Roosevelt Administration and Congress continued to make the federal government more and more responsible for the recovery from the Great Depression.

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Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

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Write one sentence to describe the history of The New Deal in the U.S. for each area below:

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The New Deal