Categories
American History English books Middle School

Black robes

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Black robes

When the conquistadors came to the New World they brought with them priests. The priests brought the Christian religion to the New World. The Indians called the priests black robes because of their clothing.

The priests built missions to help and to teach the Indians. Franciscan friars built about 40 missions along the Rio Grande. The missions were communities where the Indians went to learn about Christianity and become Christianized. Other missions were built in what is now New Mexico, California, Baja California, and Arizona.

On the frontiers the friars worked hard to convert the Indians to Christianity and to teach them the Spanish customs. Where towns were already established, the priests set up parishes and ministered to the people of the parish.

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JUNIPERO SERRA

The first mission in San Diego was San Diego de Alcala. Father Junipero Serra founded it in 1769. Once this was established, Father Serra founded nine more missions in the province of Alta, California.

FRANCISCO HIDALGO

In 1716, Father Francisco Hidalgo traveled to what is now east Texas. There were 12 other friars with Father Hidalgo. Twenty-five soldiers, some families, and 1000 head of livestock accompanied them. Father Hidalgo founded several missions near the Neches River in what is now Texas.

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NEW SPAIN

New Spain was the term applied to all the land in Asia, the Pacific, and North and South America that belonged to Spain. In New Spain people were divided into five social classes. First were the Spaniards, who were the people born in Spain.

The second social class was the Creoles, who were the people born in New Spain from Spaniard parents. The Creoles were landowners, merchants, and businessmen. The third social class was the Mestizos.

The Mestizos were the children of Spanish and Indian parents. They were the largest group. They could not get important jobs. Mestizos worked as artisans for priests, as laborers, or as hacienda tenants. The fourth group was the Indians, and the last group was the African slaves.

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Vocabulary

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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Vocabulary

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ___________________________________

2. ___________________________________

3. ___________________________________

4. ___________________________________

5. ___________________________________

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Reading Questions

Write one sentence to describe the history of Black Robes for each area below:

What?

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When?

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How?

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Where?

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Why?

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Who?

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Discuss:

1. Why did the Spaniards establish missions in New Spain?

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2. Explain the five social classes in New Spain.

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Categories
American History English books Middle School

Quakers and the Great Migration

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Quakers and the Great Migration

By 1642 more than 20,000 immigrants, mostly Puritans, had arrived at the colony. John Winthrop led these immigrants. They settled in a city called Boston. Soon they prospered. The Puritans wanted to create a new center for their religion.

They tried to create a place of holiness that would serve as an example to mankind. However, they rapidly became extremely intolerant of other’s beliefs and behaviors.

One example was Roger Williams who was expelled because he believed that the colonists should be free to have any religion they wanted. He also believed that the church should not rule the colony. He insisted that the colonists should pay the Indians for the land they had settled. Williams built a new colony called Providence and offered religious freedom to all.

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A woman named Anne Hutchinson was also expelled from her colony because she believed that she did not need any advice from a ministry. She went to live in Rhode Island.

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Quakers, or the Society of Friends, founded another non-Puritan colony. They believed that each person could know God directly through an “Inner Light” because all people were equal before God. They believed that they did not need the Bible or ministers.

The Quakers were persecuted and hung by the Puritan colony in Massachusetts. In 1681, William Penn obtained a charter from the King of England giving him permission to found the colony of Pennsylvania with the Quakers.

Another group of people who came to the colonies were the immigrant servants. They were people who could not afford to pay for their trip. In order to be able to come they would sign contracts to work for somebody almost as a slave for seven years. They were known as indentured servants. After seven years of hard work they were set free.

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Vocabulary

Find the vocabulary words (in bold), write them below, and find the definition of each in a dictionary.

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Vocabulary

Write 5 sentences using some of the vocabulary words.

1. ___________________________________

2. ___________________________________

3. ___________________________________

4. ___________________________________

5. ___________________________________

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Reading Questions

Write one sentence to describe the history of the Quakers and the Great Migrationfor each area below:

What?

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When?

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How?

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Where?

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Why?

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Who?

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Discuss:

1. Where did colonists go as they began to expand and form their own settlements?

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2. What was the main dispute that made colonists relocate?

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3. What was an indentured servant?

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Categories
Middle School MS Summer Science SCIENCE

Simple and Compound Machines

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All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Simple and Compound Machines

A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. Simple machines do work with one single movement.

There are six simple machines that are the basis for all complex machines. These simple machines are the lever, the wheel and axle, the wedge, the pulley, the inclined plane, and the screw.

Compound machines are made up of two or more simple machines working together. The mechanical advantage is the amount of effort saved when using simple or complex machines.

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An example of a compound machine is a bicycle. Although it doesn’t seem like it, a bicycle is a rather complex compound machine. A bicycle uses screws, wheels, a wheel and axle system, pedals that turn a pulley, gear shifts, and brake handles that are levers.

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Although at first it may appear that simple and compound machines are unrelated to science, they are really made up of the many complex concepts and theories of physics. Physics is the science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
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4. What do you think about the story?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

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Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

Atoms

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Atoms

An atom is the basic unit of matter. It is made up of a central nucleus and it is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

The atomic nucleus is made up of a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. The electrons in an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force.

Atoms can also stay bound to each other and form a molecule.

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A molecule is the smallest unit of an element or compound and is made up of one or more like atoms in an element or two or more different atoms in a compound.

If an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons it is called an ion. The number of protons and electrons in an atom determines what kind of chemical element it is.

This number is the atomic number and it is used to determine the place of an element in the periodic table.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
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4. What do you think about the story?

______________________________________
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Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

Electricity

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Electricity

Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. Benjamin Franklin’s experiment with a kite on a stormy night helped us understand the principles of electricity.

Thomas Edison changed the world when he invented the light bulb. An electric charge is a charge with an unequal number of protons and electrons. An electric current is the movement of electrons along a path. The natural movement of electrons from one atom to another creates an imbalance of charges between two objects.

When a positive charged atom and a negative charged atom come together a zap of electricity is given off when the electrons jump back to return to balance the atoms.

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A static discharge occurs during the movement of electrons from one object to another. Static electricity is created when an electrical charge builds up in one place. An insulator is a poor conductor of electricity.

A conductor is a material that electrons can move through. A circuit is a path through which current can flow. Circuits can be controlled with the use of a switch. Electricity is measured in volts. The electron flow in a circuit is measured in amperes.

Power is a measurement of the amount of work done per a unit of time. A watt is a unit of measurement of power.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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– 6 –

3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

4. What do you think about the story?

______________________________________
______________________________________
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Categories
Middle School MS Summer Science SCIENCE

Light

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Light

Light travels in visible waves that we see as rays of light. A photon is a basic unit of light. It is a tiny particle of electromagnetic energy. Some objects absorb light rays and others bounce the rays back.

Reflection is when light is bounced back from a surface. Light rays are reflected back at the same angle that they hit the surface. If it is not a smooth surface, then the light rays could be reflected in different directions.

Mirrors are made to reflect by using smooth surfaces like glass. The reflection off of a smooth surface is called a regular reflection. A concave lens is a lens that is thinner in the middle than the outer area. A convex lens is thicker in the middle than the outer area.

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A lens is a material that refracts light and is usually made up of glass or other transparent materials.

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The focal point is the point at which light beams meet after passing through a convex lens or reflecting from a concave mirror. When light travels from one substance to another, the light rays change direction.

Refraction is the bending of light. The bending of light occurs because light travels at different speeds when going through different substances. When light travels from one medium to another it becomes refracted or bent light. Light travels faster through air than it does through water.

A great visual illustration of the bending of light occurs when light travels through both water and glass. If you place a pencil inside a glass filled with water and look at the pencil through the glass, the pencil will appear to be broken.

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Light bends as it goes through the glass, the water and the air creating an optical illusion.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
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4. What do you think about the story?

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______________________________________

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Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

The Moon

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All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

The Moon

The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. A satellite, another word for a moon, is a natural body that revolves around a planet. The Earth’s Moon is the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System.

The distance of the Moon from Earth is about 384,403 km. That distance is about thirty times the diameter of Earth. The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth in 27.3 days. The Moon is the only celestial body where humans have traveled to and landed on in person.

Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed on the moon and left the first human footprints on the moon on July 20, 1969. The Moon’s surface is full of holes called craters. The craters on the moon come in all sizes, from very small to tremendously large.

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The craters were formed by flying space objects crashing into the surface and leaving dents in it. The large flat areas on the moon are called Maria because early scientists thought it was water when they looked through their telescopes.

In Latin, Maria means “seas,” However, there is no water, air, plants or living things on the moon.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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______________________________________

2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
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______________________________________

4. What do you think about the story?

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______________________________________

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Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

Stormy Weather

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Stormy Weather

Stormy weather can have a dramatic effect on our lives. It is important that we are familiar with the effects of stormy weather and that we are prepared in case of stormy weather so that we can stay safe.

Some types of stormy weather include hurricanes, blizzards, tornadoes, sandstorms, monsoons, and cyclones. Some of the potentially dangerous effects created by stormy weather are ice, sleet, snow, twisters, lightning, hail, thunder, and strong winds.

A blizzard is a violent snow storm. A monsoon is a system of wind that affects climatic regions and brings large amounts of wind and rain. Sleet is frozen rain or raindrops that are partly frozen

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A squall is a short but sudden and violent windstorm, and it is often followed by rain or snow.

A waterspout is like a tornado but has less of a whirlwind and happens over water, making a funnel shape that whirls air and spray. Every three to seven years, the surface of the sea of the southeast tropical Pacific gets to a very hot temperature.

Ocean temperatures have significant effects on the earth’s weather and this is how hurricanes are started as well as other stormy weather.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

4. What do you think about the story?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 7 –







Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

Earthquakes

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria


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Earthquakes
Categories
English books Middle School MS Summer Science

Volcanoes

Page 2 Page 4




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All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Volcanoes

A volcano is an opening in the surface of the earth through which gases, lava, and ash can erupt. Igneous rock is formed by cooled lava, or magma.

Lava is the hot liquid rock that comes out of a volcano. When lava comes out of a volcano, it spills out on the earth’s surface, and when it cools, the magma becomes solid. Magma is the molten rock under the earth’s surface. The vent of a volcano is the opening in the surface from where gases and lava can erupt.

A caldera is a pot shaped volcanic feature formed by the collapse of the cone of a volcano after a volcanic eruption. A cone volcano has an upside- down cone shape and is the one you see most often in pictures. A shield volcano is one that is wide.

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An active volcano is one that shows signs of unrest or is in the process of erupting. A dormant volcano is a volcano that is not active but is likely to erupt later in the future.

An extinct volcano is one that is not active and will probably never be in the future. Pumice is the light, glassy volcanic rock that is formed from lava when really hot, highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano.

A geyser is a stream of hot ground water that shoots up out of the earth’s surface when it is heated by volcanic activity. Mount St. Helens is an active stratovolcano that erupted in 1980 and is located in the ring of fire. The Ring of Fire is an area in the Pacific Ocean that has over 160 active volcanoes.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 6 –

3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

4. What do you think about the story?

______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

– 7 –