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Earthquakes

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This book developed by ©Academy Global Learning 2020
All rights reserved under ©Academy Global Learning 2020. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Earthquake

An earthquake is one of the most pernicious, tenacious, and notorious natural disasters that affects our world today. Earthquakes are caused when stored energy is released from Earth’s crust, creating waves that shake the surface.

If the earthquake takes place where there is water instead of land, a tsunami can form which can lead to catastrophic damages. Although we associate earthquakes with being on a large scale and extremely destructive, there are small earthquakes also. These small earthquakes actually occur constantly around the world. Places such as California and Alaska, are common sites for earthquakes.

Outside the U.S., common places include Chile, Indonesia, Greece, Japan, and New Zealand. Many people are audacious and intrepid enough to live in these areas.

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Even after an earthquake strikes, the people living there remain resolute. In ancient times however, earthquakes were viewed as an insidious way for the vindictive gods to punish nefarious and depraved human beings. Today, that malicious punishment theory for the turpitude of the world is no longer as prevalent.

Earthquakes can occur at any moment. They can occur even at the most boring of times when you least expect it. You may be lying in your backyard indolently, but in the next instant an earthquake may strike. It can catch you by surprise, especially if you’re in a lackadaisical mood.

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The common pattern in earthquakes has been that the larger the earthquake, the less frequently it occurs; the smaller the earthquake, the more frequently it occurs. Earthquakes are measured on what is called the “Richter Scale,” a scale from 1 to 10 with 10 being the strongest earthquake and 1 being the weakest. Since the year 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (7 to 7.9 on the Richter Scale) and one great earthquake (8.0 and above) per year.

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Since earthquakes are not preventable, the only thing that assiduous scientists can do is research and develop technology to predict earthquakes. This is a tremendous amount of work and often enervates those involved. Even though the subject matter can be soporific to some, their diligent work helps tremendously and should be appreciated.

The most physically visible effects of earthquakes are shaking and ground rupturing. These effects tend to cause major damage to buildings and other firm structures. Earthquakes can also cause landslides and avalanches in hilly or mountainous regions that destroys whatever lies at the base of the mountain. Fires are also common as a result of things such as the breaking of electrical power or gas lines due to the ground rupturing.

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Other effects include deleterious gasses, diseases, lack of basic needs, loss of life, and higher insurance premiums. Scientists are indefatigable in their efforts to learn more about earthquakes so we can better protect ourselves.

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The most devastating earthquake in U.S. history was the infamous San Francisco earthquake in 1906, which was over an 8.0 on the Richter scale. The earthquake killed 3,000 people. One of the largest earthquakes in world history was the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami in 2004. With a 9.3 Richter scale rating, it is the second largest earthquake in recorded history. It occurred in South east Asia, took the lives of over 285,000 people, and debilitated thousands more. Those are only two examples out of hundreds of earthquakes that have left cities and towns languishing.

Since earthquakes are not uncommon, you should always be prepared for one if you live in an earthquake-prone region. Even though earthquakes can’t be prevented, there are measures you can take to ensure your safety. There are many options besides being stagnant.

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Safety is something you should be proactive and adamant about, especially if you live in an area at risk to such an indomitable force. If you decide to be lethargic and listless instead, you will hurt your ability to take safety precautions.

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Vocabulary

Match each word in the left column with a description in the right column that best matches its meaning

1. ____ Deleterious

2. ____ Depraved

3. ____ Infamous

4. ____ Insidious

5. ____ Malicious

6. ____ Nefarious

7. ____ Notorious

A. Sinister, dangerous, menacing

B. Hateful, mean, evil

C. Sluggish, tired, lazy

D. Notorious, well-known, recognized

E. Wicked, evil, despicable

F. Famous for something negative

G. Destructive, harmful

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8. ____ Pernicious

9. ____ Turpitude

10. ____ Vindictive

11. ____ Boring

12. ____ Debilitate

13. ____ Languish

14. ____ Lethargic

15. ____ Enervate

H. Harmful, poisonous, deadly

I. Suffer, rot, decay

J. Wickedness, immorality

K. Weaken, hamper, hinder

L. Unforgiving, revengeful

M. Weaken, debilitate

N. Dull, not exciting

O. Immoral, corrupt, wicked

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Vocabulary

Match each word in the left column with a description in the right column that best matches its meaning

16. ____ Listless

17. ____ Indolent

18. ____ Stagnant

19. ____ Lackadaisical

20. ____ Soporific

21. ____ Adamant

22. ____ Assiduous

A. Still, motionless

B. Hardworking, thorough, attentive

C. Persistent, stubborn, dogged

D. Lacking energy, listless

E. Positive, plan ahead

F. Apathetic, careless

G. Dull, monotonous, sleep-inducing

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23. ____ Audacious

24. ____ Diligent

25. ____ Indefatigable

26. ____ Indomitable

27. ____ Intrepid

28. ____ Proactive

29. ____ Resolute

30. ____ Tenacious

H. Resolute, stubborn, unyielding

I. Firm, determined, steadfast

J. Fearless, brave, valiant

K. Diligent, hardworking, tireless

L. Daring, bold, brave

M. Untiring, unrelenting

N. Strong, unconquerable, stubborn

O. Lazy, laid-back

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Multiple Choice

1. Where do earthquakes form?

A. Earth’s surface

B. Earth’s core

C. Earth’s crust

D. None of the above

2. An earthquake released under water can cause a:

A. Tsunami

B. Tidal Wave

C. Hurricane

D. Tropical Storm

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3. The rating system used to measure earthquakes is called the:

A. Disaster Scale

B. Quake Scale

C. Richard Scale

D. Richter Scale

4. The average number of great earthquakes a year is:

A. 1

B. 5

C. 10

D. 15

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5. A common place for earthquake occurrences in the U.S. is:

A. Alaska

B. California

C. Texas

D. A and B

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True or False

Choose whether each statement is true or false and write your answer in the space provided.

1. ____ A major earthquake measures above 8.0 on the Richter scale.

2. ____ A great earthquake measures between 7 and 7.9 on the Richter scale.

3. ____ Earthquakes can cause landslides and avalanches.

4. ____ There are an average of 15 major earthquakes a year.

5. ____ The most devastating earthquake in U.S. history took place in Los Angeles.

6. ____ Earthquakes can often be prevented.

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Short Answer

1. Discuss the effects of earthquakes.

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2. What was the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake andTsunami?

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3. Name places outside the U.S. commonly struck by earthquakes.

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4. How does an earthquake form?

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Reading Questions

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

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4. What do you think about the story?

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