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English books Middle School MS Summer Science SCIENCE

Rocks and Minerals

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Designed By:
Christian Alas
Created and illustrated By:
Angelo Romero and Camilo Sanabria

Rocks and Minerals

Minerals are the most common solid materials found on earth. Minerals come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and textures. Minerals can be identified by looking at their physical characteristics.

Some of the most important characteristics in identifying minerals are hardness, color, and luster. The hardness of a mineral is determined by a scratch test. The color of a mineral depends on the substances from which the crystals are made.

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Luster is determined by how light reflects off of the mineral. A gem is a larger mineral crystal with a brilliant color, or a mineral that has been cut and polished for use as an ornament (i.e. as found in jewelry). A fracture is an uneven break in the gem.

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There are three main types of rocks: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rock is formed by magma (molten rock) when it is cooled down and becomes solid.

Metamorphic rock results when a rock transforms in a process called metamorphism. Metamorphism occurs when a rock is subjected to extreme heat or pressure. Sedimentary rock is formed by deposits of minerals and organic material.

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READING QUESTIONS

1. What is the writer’s main idea?

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2. What example supports the writer’s main idea?

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3. How does the example help the writer’s argument?

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4. What do you think about the story?

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